Indicative Chronology for Penallt

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After the Neolithic era, invasion by Celtic (“Goidals”) followed by Brythons and Belgae (i.e. in Bronze And Iron Ages).And Iron Ages).

From 2500 B.C.

Hunter/gatherers visit the Trellech ridge (stone axe-head and arrow heads found in Penallt) with eventual settlements farming on high ground.

Roman occupation

47- 380 A.D.

Possible strong point above the Wye - massive, well-dressed stone retaining walls above the Boat Inn.

Caerleon founded

75 A.D.


Celtic Christianity established including Llandaff (major see)

6th century

(No parishes centred on church buildings.

Spread of the Celtic Church

6th/7th cent

Possible hermitage near the well at site of Penallt Old Church.

Saxon raids in force into South Wales from England effectively cutting Wales off from Cornwall and Strathclyde.

From 577


Offa built his dyke

785

Penallt on the Celtic west side, Saxons on the east.

Danes raiding from the coast as far north as Archenfield

915

Proximity of the Wye a menace.

Chepstow Benedictine priory founded.

1060

“Mother church” to Penallt and Trellech, itself the daughter of Cormeilles.

WILLIAM I (1066-1087)
Norman invasion. Parish boundaries become administrative boundaries

From 1066

Celtic Church “reorganised” and gradually brought under Norman control.


c.1070

Trellech (including Penallt) a Royal Manor in the Lordship of Usk.


c.1150

Lordship passed to the de Clare family.

A time of continuing struggle between the Celtic and the Noman (Roman) Churches

1190

Appendix to the Book of Llandaff includes Penallt by name as paying church taxes.

JOHN (1199-1216)

1215

Magna Carta recognises de facto independence of Wales with Marcher Barons appointed by the Crown


Mid 13th cent

De Clares credited with building Penallt’s first stone church, although not by all.


1254

Penallt’s first recorded vicar (shared with Trellech).

HENRY III (1216 – 1272)

1272

“First historical record of a church in in Penallt” says the Rev. du Heaume in 1940 referring perhaps to the Norwich taxation papers which list the village as “Penathlan.”

EDWARD I (1272-1307)

English campaign to subjugate Wales

1276-1284

Intermittent destruction in South Wales


1291

Trellech and New Mills sacked by Earl of Norfolk for deer-poaching.

EDWARD II (1307 – 1327)



EDWARD III (1327 – 1377)



Black Death epidemics; Famine between and after

1348 - 1361

Penallt thought to have lost up to 50% of population.

RICHARD II (1377 – 1399)



Desperate Welsh uprisings

From 1390


HENRY 1V (1399 – 1413)

1404

Owen Glyndwr at Craig-y-Dorth (further depredation of Penallt thereafter virtually abandoned)

HENRY V (1413 – 1422)



HENRY VI (1422 – 1461)



EDWARD IV (1461 – 1483)



Wars of the Roses

1455-1485


RICHARD III (1483 – 1485)

HENRY VII (1485-1509)


Relative peace saw Penallt building a rural community of farmers, craftsmen and traders and rebuilding the parish church of which the tower, north wall and perhaps the chancel arch only left standing.

HENRY VIII (1509-1547)



Dissolution of the Monasteries

1534-1540


Act of Union: England and Wales

1536

Monmouthshire detached from Wales and given 2 M.P.s at Westminster. Avowdson of Penallt passed permanently from Chepstow Priory to the Crown.

“The Great Bible” (in English) introduced into all churches

1539

This date carved into the door of Penallt parish church.

EDWARD VI (1547 – 1553)



MARY (1553 – 1558)



ELIZABETH I (1558 – 1603)

1580

Sir Christopher Probert build the Argoed.


1581

1140 acres of Wye’s Wood (Devauden to Monmouth) opened as common land offering fuel, pasture and lime for the soil. Metals industries in Redbrook started

JAMES I (1603 – 1625)



CHARLES 1 (1625 – 1649)



Civil Wars. Puritan destruction compounded earlier iconoclastic damage

1642-1649

Monmouthshire evading both sides with varying success.

Cromwell (1649 – 1660)

1660

Argoed rebuilt by Sir George Probert

CHARLES II (1660-1685)

1662

The first of the bells hung in Penallt church.


1677

Trellech and Penallt listed by lawyers as separate parishes in a survey of Trellech manor.

JAMES II (1685 – 1688)



WILLIAM & MARY (1689 – 1702)

1689

Vicar Babington endowed schools in Trellech and Penallt.

QUEEN ANNE (1702-1714)


Royal Arms presented to Penallt Church (Crown holding the avowdson). Some random enclosures. Rioting and law-suits.


1713

Further 245 acres released as common land within the manor.

GEORGE I (1714 – 1727)


Box pews and galleries crowded into Penallt church.

GEORGE II (1727 – 1760)

1748

Cottage built at Pwll Du (later Moorcroft)

GEORGE III (1760 – 1820)

1761

First paper mill at Whitebrook.


1771

Tinplate production at Redbrook.


1774

Duke of Beaufort bought Trellech manor.

Napoleonic Wars

1797-1815



1809

Plans for a tram-road from Redbrook to Pwll Du aborted.

National Enclosure Acts

1810

Local enclosure gathered pace.

GEORGE IV (1820 – 1830)

c.1820

Penallt Baptist Chapel built.

WILLIAM IV (1830 – 1837)

1834

Penallt School built at Pentwyn.

VICTORIA (1837-1901)

1844

Tithe Commutation Survey of Penallt.


1847

Detailed map with ownership published.


1853

Snakescroft (later Moorcroft) built by Curate Oakley.


c.1864

Wesleyan and Primitive Methodist



chapels built.


1865

Richard Potter bought the Argoed.


1868

St. Mary’s, Pentwyn built.


1875/76

Railway comes to Penallt: bridge at The Boat.


1886

Major repairs and renovations at Penallt Old Church. Box pews and galleries removed


1887

Parishes of Trellech and Penallt separated.


1888

Last mill at Whitebrook closes. Penallt’s Vicar housed in new-built Vicarage.

First parish magazine

Cricket club founded at Moorcroft


1889

Tennis club founded.

Emigration to USA from Penallt continues following poor harvests and general agricultural decline.


1891

Eight weeks (January/February) continuous snow and ice – much hardship – scarlet fever and measles epidemics.


1900

Sales of Crown land in the district


1901/2

Beaufort land sold off piecemeal.

EDWARD VII (1901 – 1910)



GEORGE V (1910 – 1936)

1913

Argoed first to get a telephone.

First World War

1914-1918

Absence and loss of men. Penallt families dispersed.

Disestablished Church in Wales founded.

1920

Penallt opted in: Dixton opted out.


1921

War Memorial at Pentwyn.


1923

First Pelham Hall erected. The Society of the Sacred Cross came to Ty Mawr House, Lydart

GEORGE VI (1936-1952)



Second World War

1939-1945

Influx of evacuees, some settling for good


1946-1966

Extensive repairs and alterations to Penallt Parish Church.

ELIZABETH II (1953- )

1954/5

Mains water arrived in Penallt.


1955/7

Electricity arrived.


1960

Refuse collection began.


1965

Medieval stone altar retrieved and set up in the parish church.

Monmouthshire made part of Wales“for administrative purposes” by Prime Minister Heath.

1974



1987

Penallt School closed.


1986-1990

Renovation programme for church and churchyard.


1990

New cricket ground inaugurated.


1993

Replacement Pelham Hall opened.

Welsh Assembly created.

1999



2003

St. Mary’s, Pentwyn closed.


2007

Merger of Penallt and Trellech parishes.

[from: Penallt Revisited]